What is a guardian ad litem? A guardian ad litem represents the best interests of a child in court. A guardian ad litem can also represent an adult who is incapacitated or has diminished mental capacity.
What’s the Difference Between a Guardian ad Litem and an Attorney?
A guardian ad litem does not perform the same tasks as an attorney. She might make recommendations to the judge or investigate certain facts at the request of the judge, but she doesn’t argue on behalf of the person she’s representing in the same way as an attorney. In some cases, the guardian ad litem may represent someone who isn’t a named party in the case, such as a child in a divorce proceeding.
When is a Guardian Ad Litem Used?
A guardian ad litem may be used in several different types of cases.
- Divorce or custody proceedings to represent any children.
- Child abuse investigations.
- Foster care or removal cases.
- Determining whether an adult has full mental capacity.
What Does a Guardian Ad Litem Do?
The guardian ad litem works for the interests of a specific person, but their true role is to work for the judge rather than directly for that person. The judge may ask them to find out certain facts, to monitor certain activities, and to present a report in court. Exactly what the judge asks of the guardian ad litem depends on the case.
Does the Guardian Ad Litem Make any Decisions?
The guardian ad litem makes no legally binding decisions. Through their investigation and experience, they may come to a certain conclusion about what they think should happen. However, the judge retains the final authority to overrule them or request additional information in areas the guardian ad litem may not have considered.
What Does Ad Litem Mean?
Ad litem is Latin for “for the purposes of the suit.” The appointed person takes on the role of the guardian but only for the specific purposes being discussed in court and only for as much time as it takes to resolve the court case.
What Does a Guardian Ad Litem Do for Your Children in Estate Planning?
If something happens to you, a guardian ad litem can play several roles for your children in executing your estate plan. One duty is to monitor the probate process and ensure that your child receives what you intended in a way that benefits him or her. A guardian ad litem can also help your child through any guardianship proceedings including both making sure your stated wishes are honored and helping the court gain an objective view of what’s best in situations you may not have considered.
What Does a Guardian Ad Litem Do for an Incapacitated Adult?
A guardian ad litem speaks on behalf of an incapacitated adult in any court proceedings necessary to execute his or her estate plan. The guardian ad litem can also serve as a go-between between the court and medical professionals to help the court of a neutral understanding of what doctors are recommending without having to call the doctors to testify in court.
How Does a Guardian Ad Litem Receive Compensation?
Guardians ad litem are paid by the parties receiving the benefit of their services. In a family court case, the parents may split the cost. In an estate administration case, the guardian ad litem may be paid out of the estate. In an incapacitation case, the guardian ad litem may be paid out of the incapacitated person’s assets.
Who Picks the Guardian Ad Litem?
The court appoints a guardian ad litem from a list of qualified individuals. It’s possible to nominate a guardian ad litem, but she must be approved by the court.
What Does it Take to Become a Guardian Ad Litem?
A guardian ad litem must complete a training course sponsored by the court. They also need several years of experience in social work, dealing with children or the elderly, dealing with people with disabilities, or in related fields.
Do You Want to Have a Guardian Ad Litem?
A guardian ad litem can be a useful advocate in certain court proceedings. However, you may be worried about the cost or whether the guardian ad litem would really be able to follow your wishes. The key thing to remember is that guardians ad litem do the most in contested court cases. If you can avoid the need to have a judge making decisions, you can avoid the need for a guardian ad litem. This might be by creating a thorough estate plan that covers every potential scenario so that the judge has a clear understanding of what you want without needing to rely on outside input.
What Can You Do if You Disagree with the Guardian Ad Litem?
If you are the person being represented by the guardian ad litem, you can petition the court to find you mentally fit to speak for yourself. Even if the court finds that you don’t have the capacity to do so, the judge can still give weight to your requests in consideration with any feedback from your healthcare providers.
If the guardian ad litem is representing a child or another family member, the first step is to speak to them directly. They generally want to have as full an understanding of your family picture as possible and may not even be aware of your concerns. If this doesn’t work or you believe that they’re abusing their position, you can make a motion with the judge overseeing the case to take a certain action or, in extreme circumstances, to remove the guardian ad litem.
What Happens When the Guardian Ad Litem Goes to Court?
The guardian ad litem may create a written report to submit to the judge. Any parties in the court action will generally be given a copy along with time to review it before the judge makes any final decisions. The guardian ad litem also usually makes a verbal report during a court session. The judge may ask questions, and the parties will usually be able to ask questions or speak as well. In more contested situations, this may turn into a more formal cross-examination like any other witness.
Remember, that the guardian ad litem is there to represent the best interests of a child or incapacitated person rather than to win a case. The best approach if you disagree with their findings is often to bring out new facts or things they didn’t consider rather than directly arguing against their recommendation.
Do You Still Need an Attorney if You Have a Guardian ad Litem?
A guardian ad litem is not a replacement for an attorney. The guardian ad litem helps to establish facts that an incapacitated person may not be able to bring up on their own. An attorney focuses on how those facts fit within legal rights and principles. An attorney also helps to figure out the best way to legally achieve the desired outcome and to prepare any necessary documents. Further, an attorney can only act for a competent client — either directly or under the guidance of someone else — so an incapacitated person needs more than just an attorney.
Does A Guardian Ad Litem Replace a Guardian or Conservator?
A guardian ad litem also doesn’t replace a guardian, conservator, estate administrator, or other similar roles. The guardian ad litem may monitor daily activities, but it isn’t her job to run them. Their job is to observe and report back to the court. You will need to have someone else to manage the daily affairs or yourself or your children. A guardian or conservator are often also expected to report to the court, but the guardian ad litem provides an additional person to do things like monitoring how the guardian or conservator is managing your finances.
Work with an Attorney
The key to properly using a guardian ad litem and not having any surprises is proactive planning. Whether you’d want or not want to have a guardian ad litem overseeing things, you want that decision to be in your control. You do that by having a thorough estate plan for your family. Contact us today to schedule a consultation.